Don’t let anyone try to convince you that there is a Strat Plus, they just did not exist. It was owned by a former Fender employee who recently passed away. The strings, I am certain, were the original from 87, as they were rusty and hard to pull through the nut. I have owned ‘s of Strat Plus’, as well as helping s of people to identify their guitars. I also saw where Shell Pink was listed as an available color from Fender in color code 56 but not in any of the Strat Plus brochures. This is the oldest Strat Plus I have come across yet, as it came off the assembly-line July 27th, ! Scroll up to see John’s Custom Shop work log. The backs of the pickups do not even have any stickers with the part or patent numbers. Instead they are hand scribed most likely done by Jeff Lace when in high school. The numbers on the pickups indicate the order which they were manufactured!
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It depends upon the radioactive decay of carbon 14C , an unstable isotope of carbon which is continually synthesized in the upper atmosphere by cosmic rays. Plants take up atmospheric 14C for as long as they live, through the process of photosynthesis. Animals take up atmospheric 14C indirectly, by eating plants or by eating other animals that eat plants. Measuring the proportion of 14C as opposed to 12C remaining in a sample then tells us how long ago the sample stopped taking up 14C — in other words, how long ago the thing died.
Carbon dating has a certain margin of error, usually depending on the age and material of the sample used.
The Shroud of Turin: First Century after Christ! [Giulio Fanti, Pierandrea Malfi] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. The Turin Shroud is the most important and studied relic in the world. Many papers on it have recently appeared in important scientific journals. Scientific studies on the relic until today fail to provide conclusive answers about the identity of the enveloped.
Triceratops Horn Dated to 33, Years Read the article on one page A Triceratops brow horn discovered in Dawson County, Montana, has been controversially dated to around 33, years, challenging the view that dinosaurs died out around 65 million years ago. The finding radically suggests that early humans may have once walked the earth with the fearsome reptiles thousands of years ago. The Museum, which has since been in cooperation with the Paleochronology Group, a team of consultants in geology, paleontology, chemistry, engineering, and education, sent a sample of the outer portion of the Triceratops brow horn to Head of the Paleochronology Group Hugh Miller, at his request, in order to carry out Carbon dating.
Mr Miller told Ancient Origins that it is always desirable to carbon date several fractions to minimize the possibility of errors which Miller requested and that essential concordance was achieved in the ‘s of years as with all bone fractions of ten other dinosaurs. Classical reconstruction of a Triceratops Wikimedia Commons Until recently, Carbon dating was never used to test dinosaur bones, as the analysis is only reliable up to 55, years.
YouTube video explaining results of carbon testing on dinosaur bones The results of the Triceratops Horn analysis are not unique. According to Mr Miller, numerous C tests have now been carried out on dinosaur bones, and surprisingly, they all returned results dating back in the thousands rather than millions of years.
Results of C tests on dinosaur bones provided by the Paleochronology Group. Numerous independent researchers have long argued that there is evidence man and dinosaur once walked the Earth together, such as hundreds of ancient artworks and artifacts that appear to depict dinosaurs, long before modern science had pieced together dinosaur fossils and conducted analyses to produce detailed reconstructions of their appearance.
Earliest site in Scotland discovered
Is the Shroud of Turin Real? Or is it a forgery in a long line of ‘pious frauds? The Shroud of Turin is a world-famous piece of cloth alleged to have been the burial garment of Jesus Christ.
In March of , I wrote about soft tissue that had been found in the fossilized remains of a Triceratops horridus, which is supposed to be about 65 million years of the scientists who found the tissue and published a paper on it in the peer-reviewed literature 1 (Mark Armitage) was subsequently fired from his position at California State University Northridge.
Each spring, tiny plants bloom in Lake Suigetsu, a small body of water in Japan. When these one-cell algae die, they drift down, shrouding the lake floor with a thin, white layer. The rest of the year, dark clay sediments settle on the bottom. At the bottom of Lake Suigetsu, thin layers of microscopic algae have been piling up for many years. The alternating layers of dark and light count the years like tree rings.
The sedimentation or annual varve thickness is relatively uniform, typically 1. Recently scientists took a m long continuous core from the center of the lake for close analysis including AMS 14C measurements on more than terrestrial macrofossil samples of the annual laminated sediments. To allow detailed observation of the sediments, the well-cleaned surfaces of sediments were scanned with a digital camera. By means of computer image analysis of digital pictures, we found that the much less distinct varves observed in some intervals during the deglaciation and Glacial could be determined only with a relatively large error.
In order to reconstruct a more precise and longer varve chronology for the laminated sediments from Lake Suigetsu, we have reassessed the varve chronology in the whole section during the deglaciation as well as the Glacial up to a depth of The uncertainty in the varve chronology comes from two sources: Detailed comparison with short piston cores shows that the sampling does not cause significant loss of varves – typically cm to a maximum of 3 cm, corresponding to ca.
Carbon-14 in Coal Deposits
Religion, science and politics from a centre-left atheist humanist. The blog religious frauds tell lies about. This paper passed beneath my radar last August but it illustrates something rather nice about science – the way it continually challenges our assumptions and, if we are honest, causes us to change our minds and revise our understanding. It also shows that Neanderthals may have had religion before modern humans had left Africa.
The paper deals with the discovery in a French cave of artefacts which could only have been made by Neanderthals and a very long time ago. Although we have been revising our opinion about Neanderthals for several years now and no longer see them as primitive beasts with low intellect and nothing much by way of culture – all brawn and little brain – this find suggests they were socially organised, skilled and cultured people with an understanding of the world that called for rituals in an attempt to control it.
The stable form of carbon is carbon 12 and the radioactive isotope carbon 14 decays over time into nitrogen 14 and other particles. Carbon is naturally in all living organisms and is replenished in the tissues by eating other organisms or by breathing air that contains carbon. At any particular time all living organisms have approximately the same ratio of carbon 12 to carbon 14 in their tissues. When an organism dies it ceases to replenish carbon in its tissues and the decay of carbon 14 to nitrogen 14 changes the ratio of carbon 12 to carbon Experts can compare the ratio of carbon 12 to carbon 14 in dead material to the ratio when the organism was alive to estimate the date of its death.
Radiocarbon dating can be used on samples of bone, cloth, wood and plant fibers. The half-life of a radioactive isotope describes the amount of time that it takes half of the isotope in a sample to decay. In the case of radiocarbon dating, the half-life of carbon 14 is 5, years. This half life is a relatively small number, which means that carbon 14 dating is not particularly helpful for very recent deaths and deaths more than 50, years ago.
After 5, years, the amount of carbon 14 left in the body is half of the original amount. If the amount of carbon 14 is halved every 5, years, it will not take very long to reach an amount that is too small to analyze. When finding the age of an organic organism we need to consider the half-life of carbon 14 as well as the rate of decay, which is —0.
How old is the fossil?
Originally posted by john6: The same scientist who developed Carbon 14 dating. Please re-read and comprehend my above post I started out with.
This article will explain how carbon dating is supposed to work and then show you the serious flaws with this process. It is derived from a transcript of Dr. His videos and materials are not copyrighted. Carbon dating was not invented until When the schools started to teach that the earth is billions of years old, back in , the reasoning was not because of carbon dating. Carbon dating had not even been thought of yet.
Billions of years are needed to make the evolution theory look good. Without billions of years to hide in, the theory looks absolutely ridiculous. The geologic column is where it all started. The earth was divided up into layers. Each layer was assigned a name, an age, and an index fossil. The ages were chosen without any scientific reasoning:
How Good Are Those Young-Earth Arguments?
Site Map Radiocarbon dating, principles Principles of Carbon dating 14C dating is a radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring isotope carbon to determine the age of carbonaceous materials up to ca. Within archaeology it is considered an absolute dating technique. The technique was discovered by Willard Frank Libby and his colleagues in In , Libby was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry for carbon dating.
The major problem with the correlation between the Israelite destruction during the conquest of Jericho and the archaeological findings of the destruction of the final Bronze Age city of Jericho has been the date. Many who argue that the city was not even occupied during the Israelite Conquest appeal to Carbon dates to validate claims that the city was destroyed and abandoned years earlier.
Carbon dating began to play a role in the debate about the date during the s, after excavation reports from the Kenyon expedition had finally been published. When the Bronze Age city of Jericho was destroyed by a fire, the burned grain and wood was carbonized, preserving some of it in the destruction layer Kenyon, Kathleen. Digging Up Jericho, London, , This destruction layer, and various bits of charred grain and wood was excavated by archaeologists and sent to laboratories to establish a C date.
The date of the destruction of the final Bronze Age city of Jericho has been a subject of controversy over the last years, and unfortunately the C samples have not settled that controversy. Excavations at Jericho V. British School of Archaeology at Jerusalem, , However, it was discovered years later that the result of this sample testing was incorrect, and was later reissued on a list of erroneous dates due to a problem with equipment calibration at the laboratory for the years Radiocarbon results of short-lived cereal and multiyear charcoal samples from the end of the Middle Bronze Age.
This sample gave results surrounding the date of destruction advocated by Kathleen Kenyon ca. In , the current Italian excavation team under Lorenzo Nigro tested two samples that were excavated from a building appearing to contain debris from the final destruction of the Bronze Age city that had washed down to the bottom of the tell. Quaderni di Gerico 2, , , ,
How Carbon-14 Dating Works
No, it’s a trivial anomaly that has been addressed many times. If you watched the video you would have seen that the samples tested well within the range of the equipment. My feeling is that there is a vested interest to maintain the millions of years narrative to support the evolutionary narrative.
Earliest site in Scotland discovered April A Tanged point. Photograph by Alan Saville Unexpected and unique Upper Paleolithic finds recently discovered at Howburn Farm identifies this site as being the earliest in Scotland. The find is now considered so important in terms of the early settlement of Scotland that we are considering more work at the site beginning in May Originally found by field walking and then by excavation the flint assemblage is part of a larger multi period scatter of lithic and pottery over a discreet area of a field near Melbourne crossroads.
The field has produced a range of lithics spanning all pre-historic periods with chert and flint tools and debitage, also a few sherds of Early Neolithic pottery. However, the most surprising aspect of the collection is a significant quantity of Upper Palaeolithic flint tools and flakes, making this a unique site for Scotland. Tentative dating puts the site at c14, years ago immediately after the Main Ice Age and before the Loch Lomond Re-advance. We are calling for voluntary diggers to work on this site, experienced and non experienced people will be welcome, and this will be a unique opportunity to excavate such a rare site in Britain.
Geochemical Laboratory Analysis for Oil and Gas
At higher temperatures, CO 2 has poor solubility in water, which means there is less CO 2 available for the photosynthetic reactions. The enrichment of bone 13 C also implies that excreted material is depleted in 13 C relative to the diet. This increase in 14 C concentration almost exactly cancels out the decrease caused by the upwelling of water containing old, and hence 14 C depleted, carbon from the deep ocean, so that direct measurements of 14 C radiation are similar to measurements for the rest of the biosphere.
Correcting for isotopic fractionation, as is done for all radiocarbon dates to allow comparison between results from different parts of the biosphere, gives an apparent age of about years for ocean surface water.
Computer Programs Marine Reservoir Correction. Radiocarbon ages of samples formed in the ocean, such as shells, fish, marine mammals etc. This apparent age difference is due to the large carbon reservoir of the oceans. A correction is necessary in order to compare marine and terrestrial samples, but because of complexities in ocean circulation the actual correction varies with location.
The marine reservoir correction database presented here is intended for use with radiocarbon calibration programs such as CALIB Stuiver and Reimer, or OxCal Bronk Ramsey using the marine calibration dataset. Users can view and make maps and compute estimates for the Marine Radiocarbon Reservoir Age of the surface ocean based on model and measured radiocarbon reservoir age estimates. The program operates on the Google Earth and Google Map application engines and features overlay data sets particularly useful for interpreting the radiocarbon reservoir age estimates.
The program is accessible using a wide range of browsers and computer platforms. Online Bayesian radiocarbon calibration tool.